Russia: impact of weather on the agricultural crop condition in July 2016
The Central, Northwestern and Volga Federal Districts faced unstable weather conditions in July 2016. The first half of the month was rather chill, only the first days of the month were hot (+28-30°C). Abnormal hot weather was observed since July 13-15 and until the end of the month, the maximum temperature reached +29-32° in many raions, while the southern territories - +35-39°. The highest attainable temperature was exceeded in many places of the Central Black-Earth regions in the period of July 14-18. By the end of the month, total effective temperature higher than 5° mainly exceeded the standard level by 120-160° and more, resulting in faster growth rates of agricultural crops. Early winter and spring grains reached fully ripe stage within late first ten-day period and early second ten-day period (7-10 days faster than the long-term average annual index) in the Central Black-Earth regions and in the south of Volga District, and agrarians started the harvesting campaign. Thousand-kernel weight and yield exceeded the last year level in many fields. Fully ripe stage of the crops was achieved at some fields south of the latitude of Novgorod, Vladimir and Kazan during 5 recent days of the month.
In most raions of the Volga District and south-east of the Central District, agrometeorological conditions for realization of the harvesting works were mostly favorable, but in some periods they somewhat worsened due to rains. In most part of the Central and Northwestern Districts rainfalls were frequent, heavy and uneven. Their level mainly exceeded the average monthly index by 20-50% or more, and in some raions there were almost two monthly standards of precipitations, with the most significant rains in the second half of the month. Many fields had excessive moisturizing of the topsoil layer, and vegetative mass of grain crops, especially at weed-grown areas. Agrarians slowed down and sometimes stopped crop harvesting works. In some northern raions of the territory, where the plants reached grain-filling and ripening stage, some fields showed lodging of tall-grown crops which worsened conditions for further development of crops and troubled harvesting works. The weather conditions for formation of the harvest of cultivated crops in July were mostly satisfactory. In most raions the plant moisture provision was quite sufficient, but in the periods of abnormally hot weather development of sugar beet roots and potatoes slowed down, the conditions for formation of corn ears and grain filling significantly worsened, due to overheating of the upper soil layer (the average soil temperature at depth of 10 cm totaled +27-29°, and even above at some fields).
In the Southern and North Caucasian Federal Districts there were warm weather conditions, and in some periods (mainly in the second half) - hot weather. The daily air temperature varied within +36-39°, and in eastern raions - nearly +40°. In northern raions of the Districts, winter grains and early spring cereals reached their full ripeness in the beginning of the first ten-day period of July, and agrarians already started harvesting works since the third ten-day of June. Most raions of the Districts continued harvesting grain crops during the whole month, and in the southern half of the territory (except for Republics of the North Caucasus) agrarians almost completed the harvesting campaign in late July. Weather conditions for harvesting works were mainly satisfactory. In some periods, crop harvesting works even stopped due to heavy rainfalls (daily maximum reached 25-35 mm or more), excessive moistening of the topsoil layer and vegetative masses; some fields faced difficulties with harvesting works due to high crop lodging. Ear grain content and grain weight in most fields were close to the maximum values, and the yield indices significantly exceeded the last year level. In the second half of the month, corn fields started grain filling and ripening processes, only late crop areas continued leaf formation processes. Plant height varied within 170-260 cm or more, one mainly plant formed 1-2 cobs, and at the fields with high soil fertility - 3 cobs. Sugar beet continued its root growth processes, sunflower seed continued its stalk and cauliflowers growing. The conditions of crop areas was mostly good, but during the hot dry period in the second half of July some plants showed premature yellowing and drying of leaves, and sometimes heavy rains with hails and squally winds also damaged the plants.
In most raions of the European part of the Russian Federation the agro-meteorological conditions will be mostly satisfactory for realization of the harvesting campaign, and formation of late crops. The weather conditions for planting of winter crops for the harvest-2017 in the second half of August in the northern half of the territory will be almost close to the long-term average level.
In most agricultural raions of the Ural Federal District and Western Siberia, moderately warm weather conditions dominated, and in certain periods (on July 8-15, and July 21-25) - the hot weather. The maximum daily temperature grew to +28-31°. Development rates of spring crops significantly grew. At the end of the month, in Western Siberia the temperature indices dropped (the daytime temperature was not more than +16-19°). Rains of varying intensity in most raions kept sufficient moisture content of the crop areas. At the end of the month, winter crops reached waxy maturity, in some southern raions of West Siberia - full ripeness. Early spring grains continued blossoming, grain ripening, early spring wheat reached milky ripeness processes. Productivity of grain ear was close to the standard level. In some northern raions of the Ural Federal District and in north-eastern raions of Western Siberia, where there were heavy rains (80-110 mm of precipitations per month), there was observed lodging of tall-grown plants which somewhat worsened the conditions for plants blossoming and pollination, and its further harvesting. In some southern raions of Chelyabinsk oblast and western raions of Altai Krai, the conditions for formation of early spring grain harvest somewhat worsened due to the deficit of moisture content in the soil. Some crops showed premature yellowing and drying of lower leaves. But in most raions of the specified territory, weather conditions for formation of grain crops were good and satisfactory.`
In most agricultural raions of Eastern Siberia, the weather conditions were warmer than usual (especially in the very beginning of the period). The average air temperature exceeded the standard by nearly 3-5° (on some days of the first ten-day period - up 8-13°), and the maximum temperature indices rose to +33-40°. In the first and second ten-day periods of the month, due to rainfall deficit (less than 50% of the monthly standard) and dry winds, in some southern raions the weather conditions for formation of the harvest of early spring grains were rather discouraging, and sometimes bad. Some fields had drought damaged plants. In the third ten-day period, the region faced rains of varying intensity, which replenished moisture reserves in the soil. At the end of the month, the daily temperature indices slightly lowered to +22-24°. The weather conditions for formation of the harvest of early spring crops somewhat improved. By the end of July, grain crops reached milky ripeness stage.
In southern raions of the Far East, moderately warm weather conditions dominated, and on some days - hot weather. In most raions, the moisture content provision of spring grain crops was sufficient. At the end of the month, the crops mainly reached its milky ripeness stage, spring barley - waxy ripeness. In some raions, early spring barley reached full ripeness stage.
In most agricultural raions of the Asian part of Russia, the agro-meteorological conditions for formation of the grain harvest will be mostly satisfactory, as well as the conditions for planting of winter grains for the harvest-2017.
According to the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia
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